The higher mystic side of Cecil Rhodes


The history of the Rhodes family starts at the time of the Norman Conquest, to be precisely at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. [1]  Cecil Rhodes has often been described in conspiratorial and anti-globalist literature, mainly due to his enduring legacy, which gave the blueprints for many secret societies and NGO’s, and the still existing Rhodes Scholarships. Georgetown professor Carroll Quigley, who once taught many Rhodes scholars, provided very good information on these subjects in his infamous books Tragedy & Hope[2] and The Anglo-American Establishment. [3]  At the Tragedy & Hope Community they also made several informative video’s putting Rhodes into the big picture.[4]  Rhodes lived most of his life in South-Africa, where he maintained and built his De Beers diamond empire. One of his well-known visions was the ‘United States of South-Africa’, but sadly for him he didn’t live to see it happen. But there’s of course much more to him. This article isn’t meant to give an overview on all relevant information about Rhodes, but more a venture into less well-known areas, esoteric if you want to call it that way, and I hope it will open new inroads for future research, by myself and by others.

The origin of the name Rhodes is not completely certain.RHODES_fieldofroses The most plausible seems that it is derived from the Greek island Rhodes / Rhodos, or the even more ancient city of Rhodes. In Greek the word means “field of roses”,[5] like Roosevelt. The nickname of the island of Rhodes is ‘Island of Knights’, named after the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem, who once ruled over it. This group also became known as the ‘Knights of Rhodes’, ‘Knights Hospitallers’ and the ‘Knights of Malta.’

Ever since Cecil Rhodes walked the earth people have talked and written about him with a strong polarization; someone loved him or hated him, almost never in between. On the one side he made a country and helped thousands of people in getting along through work and wealth, but on the other hand was a ruthless man determined to achieve his deep desires for a global empire. Around his death in 1902 many news articles were written about his life, character and legacy, and so we learn for instance that

Rhodes has been held up to the world as an arch conspirator—a man of veiled and intricate plans, and as one who used words only to conceal his thoughts, and whose every move was made with an object. Those who knew him best say that these things were not true of him, and that he was open and above board, spoke the thought, that was in his mind, sought his goals by direct and honest routes, and attained them because of his force of character and honesty of purpose. Certainly Rhodes did and said things that were, to say the least, indiscreet, and seemingly came more from an impetuous character used to speaking his own mind than from a calculating one whose every word was carefully weighed before it was uttered. [6]

Not many people have known Rhodes really well in his life, certainly none of the journalists or other commoners in South-Africa who wrote about him. But Rhodes also had a circle in intimates though, who really knew him well and weren’t shy to write about this too, in their own books which were mainly circulated among their peers. For instance his good friend William T. Stead wrote that

Rhodes was one of the rare minds whose aspirations are as wide as the world. Such aspirations are usually to be discovered among the founders of religions rather than among the founders of dynasties. It is this which constituted the unique, and to many the utterly incomprehensible, combination of almost incompatible elements in Mr. Rhodes’s character. So utterly incomprehensible was the higher mystic side of Mr. Rhodes’s character to those among whom it was his fate to live and work, that after a few vain efforts to explain his real drift he gave up the task in despair. It would have been easier to interpret colour to a man born blind, or melody to one stone-deaf from his birth, than to open the eyes of the understanding of the “bulls” and “bears” of the Stock Exchange to the far-reaching plans and lofty ambitions which lay behind the issue of Chartereds. So the real Rhodes dwelt apart in the sanctuary of his imagination, into which the profane were never admitted. [7]

The Chartereds[8] were the companies led by highly influential individuals that received a Royal Charter in order to dedicate their life to unite the world. As we read Stead told the world that Rhodes had an unknown higher mystic side to him where the profane could never reach. Rhodes was of course a high initiate into the Mysteries, of which Freemasonry was one. Rhodes allegedly had not much respect for the Craft and mocked and angered his fellow-brethren once, by disclosing the secrets of the 33rd Degree out in the open. Later another one of Rhodes’ closer friends, Lord Rothschild, told the world how he thought of Rhodes, namely a

very great man, he saw things as no one else saw them and he foresaw things which no one else dreamt of … his great generosity bewitched those who came in contact with him … his loss would be irreplaceable, where it not for the fact that he put in motion ideas which have taken root, ideas firmly established … which will continue to grow and flourish. [9]

Here we find another confirmation that globalization and unification was more to Rhodes and his inner circle than simply a life’s dream; they are spiritual about their quest! It also seems that Rhodes’ vision was meant to be perpetual and meant to flourish and spread to the farthest corners of the Earth. And, as you can read in my articles THE BOREDOM OF SKEPTICISM and OUR DEMON-HAUNTED ELITE, the thought of uniting the world and everything on it is among top globalists really something they experience as spiritual possession. To achieve the actual unification Rhodes wrote in total seven different wills in which he described how an intricate secret society had to be formed. Carroll Quigley tells us about the Confession Of Faith, as written by Rhodes. These documents also outlined the types of personality he deemed perfect for future Rhodes Scholars. The chosen ones would have to be individuals “of ability and enthusiasm who find no suitable way to serve the country under the current political system”, which means of course that they were in some way radicals or revolutionaries. They would have to be recruited at youth. There were a few other characteristics and personality traits that would be welcome:

– Have no particular aim in life
– Having experienced a great disappointment early on in life
– Grown up in the lower classes thus otherwise never having real possibilities in life

All three are clearly chosen to recruit young moldable and traumatized individuals, who are easily radicalized and thereafter quickly woven into the tangled web of the NWO Agenda. Quigley also wrote that the Rhodes Thrust would be led like a religious brotherhood based on the system of the Jesuits, being “a church for the extension of the British Empire”. [10]  Quigley cites William T. Stead, who tells us that

Rhodes was more than the founder of a dynasty. He aspired to be the creator of one of those vast semi-religious, quasi-political associations which, like the Society of Jesus, have played so large a part in the history of the world. To be more strictly accurate, he wished to found an Order as the instrument of the will of the Dynasty, and while he lived he dreamed of being both its Caesar and its Loyola. It was this far-reaching world-wide aspiration of the man which rendered, to those who knew him, so absurdly inane the speculations of his critics as to his real motives. [11]

We already know that Rhodes was quite openly about
their goals for world domination, but in this newspaper clipping from a 1902 edition of the Chicago Tribune it even becomes clearer.[13]  We read that his secret society would help to stop all wars, bring about one single world language and “the gradual absorption of wealth and human minds of the higher order to the object”. So here we find Rhodes publicly proclaiming that the end goal of his not-so-secret society was to relieve us of the burden of war, by taking everything we have and standardize the world population. Also note Rhodes proclaiming peace would even be secured “for all eternity”, which is a goddamn’ long time. Is he thereby already hinting at a hidden permanent change in the human situation which would have to be made? Something which would have to do with absorbing human minds into a whole. That sounds rather Faustian, doesn’t it? A ‘giant sucking sound’, we might say, draining the world of everything it has.



If we read the full text of Rhodes’ Confession, we learn that “the object” is the aim and inner workings of their secret society:

Why should we not form a secret society with but one object the furtherance of the British Empire and the bringing of the whole uncivilised world under British rule for the recovery of the United States for the making the Anglo-Saxon race but one Empire. What a dream, but yet it is probable, it is possible. […] Africa is still lying ready for us it is our duty to take it. It is our duty to seize every opportunity of acquiring more territory and we should keep this one idea steadily before our eyes that more territory simply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race more of the best the most human, most honourable race the world possesses. To forward such a scheme what a splendid help a secret society would be a society not openly acknowledged but who would work in secret for such an object. [14]

But it was perfectly clear to them that it would take many years to accomplish all that Rhodes had envisioned. In many ways he just continued the agenda set out by Francis Bacon and his peers almost 300 years before, as described elsewhere on this website. This ongoing 500 year precession is one of the most important pillars of the NWO-agenda for world government and in the end complete world unity to understand.

In the fourth volume of his series on the History Of The English-Speaking Peoples, Winston Churchill also hinted on the ongoing agenda set out by the Rhodes group. He wrote about the Boer War in South-Africa and the Pretoria Convention in the early 1880’s, which gave virtual independence to the Transvaal and power to the Boers. Then Churchill tells us that all

might have gone more smoothly in the future but for two developments. Immensely rich goldfields were discovered in the Rand and a large, bustling cosmopolitan mining community was suddenly planted in the midst of the Boers’ farmers Republic. Meanwhile at Cape Town Cecil Rhodes had entered politics, resolved to create a vast, all-embracing South African dominion, and endowed by nature with the energy that often makes dreams come true. From these events sprang consequences which have yet to run their course. [15]

The famous statesman wrote this in 1958, well beyond the end of the Second World War.

Cecil Rhodes was well-known during his lifetime under his RHODES_gravenickname “Old Man”, even while he never reached the age of 50. [16]  One of his most vivid passions was the impressive Table Mountain near his mansion, where he often resided and where his Rhodes Memorial is placed. We can therefore rightfully call Cecil John Rhodes the ‘Old Man of the Mountain.’ Rhodes arranged for himself to be buried on one of the Matobo Hills in present day Zimbabwe, at a mystical placed called ‘Worlds View’. This site also called ‘Malindidzimu’ by the Ndebele people who see it as their spiritual home. This way Rhodes destined himself to go into history as the ‘Old Man of the Mountain’. This phrase has in fact a very long and interesting esoteric tradition, but unfortunately with a high amount of fairytales and disinformation mixed into it through the centuries. The famous Masonic philosopher Manly P. Hall tells us that the

sect of the Assassins, or the Yezidees as they are more generally known, demonstrated a rather interesting aspect of the drug problem. In the eleventh century this order, by capturing the fortress of Mount Alamont, established itself at Irak. Hassan Sabbah, the founder of the order, known as the “Old Man of the Mountain,” is suspected of having controlled his followers by the use of narcotics. Hassan made his followers believe that they were in Paradise, where they would be forever if they implicitly obeyed him while they were alive. [17]

Bertrand Russell, the philosopher-king of the NWO, wrote in his History Of Western Philosophy about the same subject. He tells us that around the year 830

Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarazmi, a translator of mathematical and astronomical books from the Sanskrit, published a book which was translated into Latin in the twelfth century, under the title Algoritmi de numero Indrum. It was from this book that the West first learnt of what we call ‘Arabic’ numerals, which ought to be called ‘Indian’. The same author wrote a book on algebra which was used in the West as a text-book until the sixteenth century. Persian civilization remained both intellectually and artistically admirable, though it was seriously damaged by the invasion of the Mongols in the thirteenth century. Omar Khayyam, the only man known to me who was both a poet and a mathematician, reformed the calendar in 1079. His best friend, oddly enough, was the founder of the sect of the Assassins, the ‘Old Man of the Mountain’, of legendary fame. […] The Sufi sect, which still exists, allowed itself great latitude in the mystical and allegorical interpretation of orthodox dogma; it was more or less Neoplatonic. [18]

So the dear friend of the ‘Old Man of the Mountain’ was none less than Omar Khayyam, the Sufi prophet who was such a big inspiration for the Fabian Society. The Fabian motto “remould it nearer to the Heart’s Desire” is derived from a quatrain of the poem Rubaiyat by Khayyam. The full quatrain tells us the complete goal of the Fabians and their cohorts:

Dear love, couldst thou and I with fate conspire
To grasp this sorry scheme of things entire
Would we not shatter it to bits—and then
Remould it nearer to the Heart’s Desire! [19]


This “sorry scheme of things” would be, well, us; the global population and the world we are living on. This first had to be shattered into bits, through war, famine, and whatever fits the bill, before the Builders would be able to reshape it. Hence we’ve seen wars to end all wars and peace-treaties to end all peace. On the famous Fabian window we see Sidney Webb and Bernard Shaw, remolding the world on their anvil in a true alchemical process. We also see H.G. Wells watching from the sideline “with envious eyes”, how they “slowly, but surely drew their plans against us”, as the interesting Jeff Wayne implementation of War Of The Worlds states. [see MUSIC MAESTRO]  Wells seems to be providing some fresh cool air, because all that Global Warming is doing the world much damage!




The word ‘Man’ also means ‘Temple’ in the esoteric teachings,[20] making Cecil Rhodes also figuratively the ‘Old Temple on the Mountain’. More specifically the Table Mountain, the flat top mountain ridge, which is flanked by Devil’s Peak, where the Rhodes’ memorial resides. The Rhodes Memorial consists of an Egyptian styled temple, surrounded by eight statues of lions. In ancient Egypt lions signified the Sun, or their most important God; RA. The winged sun disc you see here is a depiction of how the ancient Egyptians saw Ra. He was their ‘Wings Around The World’, which also is the name of the secret society bent to rule the world in the great science-fiction film Things To Come, based on the non-fiction book by H.G. Wells. More on this film can be found in my article ADAPT AND DIE.

But the real eye-catcher at Rhodes’RHODES_statue memorial is the larger statue of the great horseman named ‘Physical Energy’, sitting on his prancing horse, peering into the distance. We can only presume he’s watching the horizon, for the long awaited dawning of the new day. The bronze statue was made by high Freemason George Frederic Watts, the painter and sculptor, famous for his highly symbolic statues. Watts was member of the Royal Academy [‘RA’, see engraving on the base of the statue] and the Order of Merit, one of the highest dynastic orders in the Commonwealth at his time. He was the son of George Watts and Harriet Smith, and married twice in his life. First with Mary Seton Fraser Tytler, and after she died with Dame Alice Ellen Terry. This probably explains the meteoric rise of Watts into the higher regions of the British aristocracy. His first wife was from the Seton family, one of the highest Masonic families in Great Britain. Mary’s father was a high civil servant at the British East India Company, and she herself did work at and for this institution too.[21] Ellen Terry came out of a long lineage of actors and artists. She seemingly was only married with Watts for about one year. Watts only accepted and tutored two pupils in his life, with Valentine Cameron Prinsep as the prominent one. In this individual we can see the synthesis of two influential families, namely the Cameron clan and the Prinsep family. Valentine´s father was Charles Hay Cameron, whose aristocratic father Charles senior was Governor of the Bahamas.[22]  The Prinsep family might also be interesting for further research,[23] with for instance one lead being the fact that George Frederic Watts was friends with James Prinsep Beadle. The name of this individual is often interchanged with James Princip Beadle,[24] leaving even room for possible hidden connections with Gavrilo Princip, the murderer of Archduke Franz Ferdinand who ‘singlehandedly’ started the Great War. This is of course beyond the scope of this article. One other connection which can be made here is interesting though, because it seems that one

Burne-Jones also found himself absorbed into the orbit of George Frederic Watts, the genius in-residence at Little Holland House in Kensington, where the indefatigable Sara Prinsep, wife of a wealthy Anglo-Indian civil servant and sister of the equally formidable Julia Margaret Cameron, the famous photographer, presided over a salon packed with celebrities from the worlds of art, literature, politics, and science. Ruskin, Rossetti, and other Pre-Raphaelites were among Mrs. Prinsep’s ‘lions’. [25]

Note the reference to lions here again. This Ruskin was of course Sir John Ruskin, the disciple of Thomas Carlyle and one of the influential globalist ideologues of his time. He is also said to be one of the main intellectual influences on Cecil Rhodes, although there has been some controversy on this issue. It was Carroll Quigley who claimed that Ruskin’s lecture made such an impact on Rhodes that he kept the manuscript with him for decades after. But this was contradicted by Robert I. Rotberg, who wrote the famous biography on Rhodes named The Founder [1988], and countered that the Ruskin lectures were given a few years before Rhodes enrolled at Oxford. The arguments on both side are not very strong. But Rhodes could also have found and mastered the lecture himself a few years after and henceforth keeping it as his treasure.  But then I realized that the name Rotberg is of course very interesting when seen in the light of the NWO-agenda. This name is German for ‘Red Mountain’, and I found out that he is also a Rhodes Scholar himself! [26]  He also led multiple globalist NGO’s like the World Peace Foundation. The founder of this NGO was Edward Ginn, to who John D. Rockefeller Jr. was called his “younger contemporary”. This by Mr. Rotberg himself, who wrote a book about Ginn. [27]  Doesn’t this make it terribly tempting to coin the proposition that Mr. Rotberg wrote this biography with the extra intention of engaging in some ‘damage control’ on the unexpected exposure the globalists suffered due to Quigley’s books? Is Rotberg’s claim preferable over Quigley’s? And why would a relationship between Rhodes and Ruskin be suppressed, or at least blurred? Or did Quigley make this connection for a special reason, knowing but not really caring that his statement wasn’t factually flawless? Because Quigley was very eager to show the big picture to the world, because he was convinced that everyone should know. So let’s find out.


Ruskin has quite an impressive legacy if you look into it. He’s most famous for being an art critic, but that is of course also the least important part of his legacy. He can for instance also be seen as one of the first intellectual proponents of what later would be called the Ecological or Green Movement, or maybe better and more broadly, the Technocratic Movement. Ruskin’s work The Storm Cloud Of The Nineteenth Century  can be seen as the first in this regard. It consists of two lectures delivered at the London Institution, in February of 1884, and are mainly about the new, dark, clouds in the sky, due to pollution of industry, and its effect on nature.[28]  Besides this Ruskin put a lot of his time into teachings on illumination. The most well-known type of illumination Ruskin taught was through literature, mainly together with his dear friend, the Communist and Socialist ideologue William Morris.

The pamphlet John Ruskin, William Morris, and the Illuminated Manuscript  tells us about the lectures which were held in 1854: “Though Ruskin never published these lectures, nor even wrote them down in full, reports of them occurred in various newspapers, including The Builder”. [influential Masonic magazine.] The way this is written strongly hints that these lectures contained very important information, especially for the Freemasons, and possibly for some  other initiates too. And so we learn that for these lectures Ruskin

drew upon examples of illuminated manuscripts, particularly those from the mid- to the late-thirteenth century, to illustrate his principles of design. […] To further clarify this distinction between the painter and the illuminator, Ruskin set forth what he determined to be the principles governing the best examples of illumination. He stressed that, even when introducing elements of nature into manuscript art, the illuminator must never directly “imitate” nature through the application of shadows and highlights, as would the painter. Rather, he must be the “master of outline.” Outline is “opposed to light and shadow” in that “light and shadow altered, but outline, the statement of material form, did not alter.” And as Ruskin pointed out in his second talk, ‘The General Principles of Outline,’ “There was no such thing as outline in nature.” From this it followed that direct imitation of nature could not be the proper function of the illuminator.

 Nature, in the Gothic manuscript, symbolizes growth, life, and God. Ruskin told his audience that by developing the habit of drawing everything that came before their eyes, they would receive “a power of communicating with nature and … a reverence for Him who made both nature and their hearts.” [29]

That’s quite interesting, certainly if you’re familiar with writings of high initiates in the Mysteries in which they proclaimed that the Great Work is also a form of art, and that the shaping of society has to be done through some kind of rituals and with perfection. Ruskin taught that true illuminators only operate indirectly and unnoticeable on their art. Furthermore that they don’t want or need to imitate nature, but outline their own rules and laws, so that the piece of art becomes their own; their Magnum Opus; their Great Work. A work that has to transcend nature: first transcend growth; then transcend life; and finally transcend God. And the way to get there, Ruskin hinted, would be through an endless process of instant documentation and scrutiny of everything they could lay their all-seeing eyes on, which in due time would give them the powers to interact directly with the laws of the universe. And summarizing it all into one leading rule, Ruskin taught his adepts that they had to live and work keeping in mind that

If there were no change, there could be no life. A person could not live without change; not a tree nor a leaf could live without growth. That might be taken as the great rule of all living art.

And so the world got endless growth and permanent revolutions, followed by an electronic panopticon in which illumined minds will stay in perpetual flux. Change we can believe in? Do you think they really Care?

This form of illumination was Ruskin’s legacy; a legacy signified by the illuminated radiating Sun, the swastika. Ruskin is even united forever with this icon in his death, as you can see on his gravestone. For us this logo of course instantaneously invokes images of the Nazis, but this symbol literally goes back into antiquity. It represents the perpetual law of progress, as proceeded by the illuminated initiates of the Mysteries, in their Great Work onto Godhood.

In the book Shape Of Things: A Philosophy Of Design by Vilém Flusser, we can read about the meaning of the swastika / Progress in our time, the Biotechnical Era. Flusser was a Polish philosopher whose father was a disciple of Albert Einstein, and he himself was often equated with Marshall McLuhan, because both came up with similar far-reaching and prophetic theories on how media and technique would influence, change and finally overtake the human body and human behavior. [30]   Flusser wrote:


John Ruskin did also have a true disciple in the famous communitarian sociologist Lewis Mumford, who even named him the “fundamental economist of the Biotechnic order” in his classic book The Culture Of Cities  [1932], because he was “the first economist to express the realities of energy income and living standards in relation to production”. Mumford helped to set the paradigm of what later would become the postindustrial hyper-connected megalopolises of the [near] future. The buzzword in our time is of course ‘smart city’. As he was born to be of course, because a Lewis is a hoist mechanism used in masonry, and the name has even also be used as meaning ‘Son of a Mason‘. And Mumford would then be the ‘crossing to Mum’, the Great Mother. I explain this in some of my other articles, especially the series on the Apocalypse. This can allude to the crossing between mainstream and underground stream, the latter being the Mystery Schools. Or the ‘Illuminators’, to keep in line with what Ruskin wrote. It might also mean another dimension, but then we of course quickly go into conjecture and speculation. But Lewis Mumford was destined to hoist the Plan up one notch closer to their Mummy. And that’s where all human minds seemingly have to be absorped into, to make the connection with Rhodes too.  Later on in life Mumford even became a real New-Age prophet and he more or less explained what I just asserted. He wrote in his book The Transformations Of Man  that

In the fullness of time, a unified self will bring a world culture into existence, and that world culture will in turn sustain and bring to a higher pitch of development this new self. [31]

Again the mantra of “we are all one”, combined with the alleged need for raising our consciousness or our vibrational level. It’s one of their many ploys to entice the people to connect themselves and merge into the Global Brain. Don’t fall for it. You will never be yourself again.





[1]  House Of Names; Rhodes Family Crest

[2]  Download: Tragedy And Hope

[3]  Download: The Anglo-American Establishment

[4]  Tragedy & Hope Productions – History Of The Last Will Of Cecil Rhodes  [2013]

[5]  www.meaning-of-names.com/greek-names/rhodes.asp

[6]  New York Daily Tribune, April 13, 1902  / p. 3

[7]  William T. Stead – The Last Will And Testament Of Cecil John Rhodes  / p. 52

[8]  Short for “Charter-Reds”, with red for world revolution?

[9]  Cited in: Thomas J. Schaeper – Rhodes Scholar, Oxford, And The Creation Of An American Elite
[Berghahn; 2010] / p. 9

[10]  Carroll Quigley – The Anglo-American Establishment  / p. 34

[11]  Ibid.  / p. 36

[12] Chicago Tribune; Thursday, April 10, 1902

[13]  Chicago Tribune, Wednesday April 9, 1902

[14]  The full text of the 1877 ‘Confession’ by Rhodes.

[15]  Winston Churchill – A History Of The English-Speaking Peoples, Vol. IV
[Cassell & Company, London; 1958] / p. 265

[16]  See for instance: Gordon le Sueur – Cecil Rhodes; The Man And His Work. [Murray, London; 1913]

[17]  Manly P. Hall – The Secret Teachings Of All Ages  / p. 112

[18]  Bertrand Russell – The History Of Western Philosophy  [Simon & Schuster; 1965]  / p. 423

[19]  See for instance here

[20]  See for instance: Albert Mackey – Revered Wisdom; Freemasonry
[Sterling, New York; 2010]  / p. 210

[21]  http://www.wattsgallery.org.uk/mary-watts

[22]  Cameron Clan Genealogies; Charles Hay Cameron

[23]  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prinsep

[24]   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Prinsep_Beadle

See also: http://scholars.wlu.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1084&context=cmh  / p. 3

[25]  Edward Burne-Jones – Victorian Artist-Dreamer  [1998] / p.49

[26]  The full text can be found here.

[27]  Robert I. Rotberg Wikipedia

[28] Robert I. Rotberg – A Leadership Of Peace / p. 63

[29]  The full text can be found here.

[30]  Evelyn Phimister – John Rusk, William Morris And The Illuminated Manuscripts

[31]  – Vilém Flusser – Shape of Things; A Philosophy of Design  [Reaktion; Londen]  / p. 117

– Scott L. Weiss – Human Consciousness and the Construct of Meaning in the Communication Theories of Marshall McLuhan and Vilém Flusser

[32]  – Lewis Mumford – The Culture Of Cities  [Thomson, London; 1970]  / p. 542

– Lewis Mumford – The Transformation Of Man  [Harper and Row; NY 1956] / p. 241, 242